Gems from the Archives – 33 Rawlins List 1817

Many have asked us if there is any documentation regarding where the enslaved of St. Kitts came from.    To answer that question, we are sharing the return of slaves made by James Blair on behalf of Sarah Rawlins, widow of John Rawlins.  This is entered in the first register of Slaves created in 1817.  (5 scanned pages and an excel document transcribing the return)

In total Rawlins claimed ownership over 177 enslaved workers.  While the majority had been born in St. Kitts, there were 45 who came from various parts of West Africa.  We all recognize the Congo as a region.  Others were identified by their ethnicity – Ebo (Igbo), Mandingo, Bambra (Bamana or Bambara) and Mende are well known groups even today.  There are also lesser known ethnicities like the Boulan, Mocco and Timiny.

Another interesting column is the one showing the jobs that were assigned to the enslaved.  Children under the age of six and invalids were excused from work.  Most of the workers were sent to the fields.  Some worked in the house.  These were mostly women who had been born in St. Kitts. Only the men had skilled work as masons, coopers and carpenters and distillers.  Also worth noting is the evidence of a hierarchy among the enslaved.  Cyrus, the most senior of the drivers had Harriett waiting on him.  There is also strong evidence of resistance in the fact that two men, Fortune and Henry both born in St. Kitts had been runaways for a number of years.  Curiously Quashy, a 70 year old African of unknown ethnicity, is described as “given up to the country.”  One wonders what Blair meant when he wrote that

We are grateful to Professor Maureen Warner-Lewis for the following..

Here is information re the identity of the “Boulon, Mocco, and Timiny” among this cohort.

The Boulon are likely the Bullom from the Guinea/Sierra Leone border. They appear closely related to the Kissi and Sherbro peoples. The Timiny are the Temne, again from Sierra Leone.

The Mocco are from the area of Old Calabar at the estuary of the Niger River in present-day Nigeria. The name is spelt Moco, Mocho, Moko. The people exiting from this area are likely to have been Kalabari, Ibibio, Igbo, Ijo.

Page enslaver enslaved gender colour reputed age place of birth employment
page 282 James Blair Manager of the Estate of John Rawlins Esquire, deceased and Mrs Sarah Rawlins, his widow George Male Sambo thirty five Creole of Nevis Carpenter (absent since 1811)
page 282 Thomas Male Mulatto twenty eight Creole of Montserrat Carpenter (absent since 1810)
page 282 Billy Male Black twenty two Creole of St. Kitts Carpenter
page 282 Venture Male Black nineteen Creole of St. Kitts Carpenter
page 282 Ventidus Male Black twenty six Creole of St. Kitts Cooper
page 282 Lovelace Male Black twenty five Bambra from Africa Cooper
page 282 Hamlet Male Black twenty five Boulan from Africa Cooper
page 282 Watty Male Black sixty five Bambra from Africa Mason
page 282 Pontack Male Black twenty five Creole of St. Kitts Mason
page 282 Shemoon Male Black twenty Creole of St. Kitts Mason
page 282 Paris Male Black sixty Congo from Africa Distiller
page 282 Syphax Male Black forty five Congo from Africa Distiller
page 282 Samson Male Black thirty Congo from Africa Field
page 282 Sharper Male Black twenty seven Congo from Africa Field
page 282 Cato Male Black twenty seven Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 282 Allick Male Black twenty six Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 282 Cudjoe Male Black thirty five Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 282 Venture Male Black thirty Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 282 Pompy Male Black twenty eight Congo from Africa Field
page 282 Jack Male Black twenty eight Congo from Africa Field
page 282 George Male Black thirty nine Mocco from Africa Field
page 282 Jasper Male Black thirty Mocco from Africa Field
page 282 Jack Patton Male Black twenty five Timiny from Africa Field
page 282 William Male Black twenty five Mandingo from Africa Field
page 283   William Male Black twenty five Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Tom Male Black twenty eight Timiny from Africa Field
page 283 Tom Male Black twenty four Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Hamlet Male Black twenty eight Creole of St. Kitts Stable Boy
page 283 George Male Black twenty four Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Quaker Male Black twenty eight Congo from Africa Field
page 283 Quow Male Black thirty Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Constance Male Black twenty five Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Dick Male Black thirty Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 England Male Black twenty five Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Peter Male Black twenty eight Creole of St. Kitts Stock Boy
page 283 James Male Black twenty one Creole of St. Kitts Saddler
page 283 Hercules Male Black fifty five Creole of St. Kitts Coach Man
page 283 John Male Black twenty five Creole of St. Kitts House Servant
page 283 Rochester Male Black twenty six Mandingo from Africa Cook
page 283 Charles Male Black seventeen Creole of St. Kitts Carpenter
page 283 Calia Female Black twenty eight Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Cuba Female Black twenty six Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Greice Female Black twenty eight Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Hannah Female Black twenty six Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Margaret Female Black forty five Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Mimba Female Black twenty seven Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Maryann Female Black thirty Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Nanno Female Black twenty nine Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Dorinda Female Black twenty six Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Dido Delaney Female Black thirty three Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Phillas Delaney Female Black thirty four Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Dido Johnston Female Black twenty six Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Phiba Female Black twenty four Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 PhillasYoung Female Black twenty eight Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Kitty Gilliard Female Black twenty seven Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Dinah Female Black twenty five Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Sally Female Black thirty five Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Ritta Female Black thirty five Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Franky Female Black thirty seven Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Chairity Female Black twenty five Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Violet Female Black twenty one Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Elsey Female Black twenty one Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 283 Kitty Female Black forty five Creole of St. Kitts Sick Nurse
page 284   Nancy Female Sambo twenty four Creole of St. Kitts House Servant
page 284 Dinah Female Black fifty five Creole of St. Kitts House Servant
page 284 Margaret Female Mulatto twenty three Creole of St. Kitts House Servant
page 284 Mall Female Mulatto thirty five Creole of St. Kitts House Servant
page 284 Cornelia Female Black seventy Congo from Africa House Servant
page 284 Isabella Female Black thirty five Minnah from Africa Field
page 284 Flora Female Black thirty five Timiny from Africa Field
page 284 Greita Female Black thirty seven Mocco from Africa Field
page 284 Betty Female Black thirty nine Mocco from Africa Field
page 284 Letty Female Black thirty nine Congo from Africa Field
page 284 Pegge Female Black thirty Congo from Africa Field
page 284 Ammelia Female Black thirty three Congo from Africa Field
page 284 Settira Female Black thirty four Mocco from Africa Field
page 284 Pastora Female Black twenty eight Mandingo from Africa Field
page 284 Maryann Female Black forty Mandingo from Africa Field
page 284 Jennet Female Black fifty five Ebo from Africa Field
page 284 Nancy Jouler Female Black forty five Joular from Africa Field
page 284 Jenny Female Black twenty eight Congo from Africa Field
page 284 Sophy Female Black twenty six Mendie from Africa Field
page 284 Belinda Female Black thirty Mocco from Africa Field
page 284 Polly Female Black twenty eight Mocco from Africa Field
page 284 Belinda Female Black thirty Creole of St. Kitts House Servant
page 284 Minnah Nancy Female Black forty Creole of St. Kitts House Servant
page 284 Minah Female Black thirty eight Creole of St. Kitts Driver
page 284 Colin Male Black twenty eight Mandingo from Africa Field
page 284 John Male Black twenty Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 284 Louie Male Black twenty one Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 284 Frank Male Black fifteen Creole of St. Kitts House Servant
page 284 Andrew Male Black twenty Creole of St. Kitts Stock Boy
page 284 Santy Male Black fourteen Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 284 Nielson Male Black fourteen Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 284 Jarvies Male Black fourteen Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 284 Julus Male Black fifteen Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 284 Patrick Male Black sixteen Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 284 Jonnie Male Black twelve Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 284 Ned Male Black twelve Creole of St. Kitts Stock Boy
page 284 Quashy Male Black fifteen Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 284 Alfred Male Black twelve Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 284 London Male Black thirteen Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285   Sam Male Black thirteen Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Paul Male Black fourteen Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Davey Male Black ten Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Billly Male Black thirteen Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Daniel Male Black ten Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Henry Male Black ten Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Harvie Male Black eleven Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Boatswain Male Black ten Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Pollidore Male Black eleven Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Pero Male Black eight Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Cato Male Black nine Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Abram Male Black nine Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Philip Male Black nine Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Osman Male Black nine Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Frank Male Black nine Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Cuffy Male Black nine Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Daniel Male Mulatto ten Creole of St. Kitts House Boy
page 285 Patience Male Black four Creole of St. Kitts Child
page 285 Jacob Male Black four Creole of St. Kitts Child
page 285 Cubena Male Black four Creole of St. Kitts Child
page 285 Blukar Male Black three Creole of St. Kitts Child
page 285 Wilington Male Black three Creole of St. Kitts Child
page 285 Brunswick Male Black two Creole of St. Kitts Child
page 285 Ned Male Black two Creole of St. Kitts Child
page 285 Thomas Male Black one Creole of St. Kitts Child
page 285 Jick Female Black one Creole of St. Kitts Child
page 285 Venus Female Black one Creole of St. Kitts Child
page 285 Philistina Female Black two Creole of St. Kitts Child
page 285 Elen Female Black two Creole of St. Kitts Child
page 285 Joan Female Black sixteen Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Amarillis Female Black forty five Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Betsey Female Black sixteen Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Belinda Female Black sixteen Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Beneba Female Black thirteen Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Caroline Female Black sixteen Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Hannah Female Black fourteen Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Hetty Female Black thirteen Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 285 Sucky Female Black ten Creole of St. Kitts Field
Page 285 Mary Female Black ten Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 286   Minah Female Black nine Creole of St. Kitts Field house servant
page 286 Betsey Female Black fourteen Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 286 Greece Female Black eight Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 286 Julat Female Black eleven Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 286 Subiny Female Black eight Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 286 Tinah Female Black nine Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 286 Louisa Female Black twelve Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 286 Frances Female Black nine Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 286 Harriet Female Black eight Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 286 Betty Female Black nine Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 286 Pegge Female Black eighty Creole of St. Kitts Invalid
page 286 Lisat Female Black seventy Creole of St. Kitts Field, invalid
page 286 Nancy Female Black sixty Creole of St. Kitts Field, invalid
page 286 Franky Female Black fifty creole of St. Kitts Field, invalid
page 286 Betsey Bell Female Black sixty Ebo from Africa Field, invalid
page 286 Nanny Female Black sixty five Ebo from Africa Field, invalid
page 286 Philas Female Black forty Congo from Africa Field, invalid
page 286 Harriet Female Black fifty Bambra from Africa waiting on Cyrus
page 286 Kitty Female Black seventy Ebo from Africa Invalid
page 286 Maryann Female Black seventy Ebo from Africa Invalid
page 286 Sarah Female Black thirty five Creole of St. Kitts Field
page 286 Ben Male Black eighty Moco from Africa Invalid
page 286 Julas Male Black eighty five Ebo from Africa Invalid
page 286 Peter Male Black twenty three Creole of St. Kitts Leprosy
page 286 Long boy Male Black forty five Creole of St. Kitts Watch
page 286 Billy boy Male Black twenty eight Creole of St. Kitts Watch
page 286 Crab Male Black sixty Mandingo from Africa Watch
page 286 Ned Male Black sixty nine Congo from Africa Watch
page 286 Fortune Male Black twenty five Creole of St. Kitts runaway since 1811
page 286 Harry Male Mulatto thirty five Creole of St. Kitts runaway since 1808
page 286 Nanny Female Black sixty five Creole of St. Kitts Invalid
page 286 Cyrus Male Black sixty Creole of St. Kitts Driver
page 286 Johnno Male Black thirty Creole of St. Kitts Driver
page 286 Tom Male Black thirty Creole of St. Kitts Driver
page 286 Quashy Male Black seventy from Africa given up to the country
page 286 Charlotte Female Black sixty Creole of St. Kitts Washer
page 286 Total 177 James Blair for Estate of John Rawlins deceased and Mrs. Sarah Rawlins, his widow